Long before UEFA decided to launch its club licencing system and its Financial Fair Play (FFP) rules, several football federations had already set up their own economic regulations for competitions.
France and Germany, as well as Israel, are some of the forerunners. In these countries, professional clubs have been subject to a very strict financial control for a long time.
The aim of this monitoring is to ensure that all clubs entering a competition are able to finish it. What must be avoided is the bankruptcy of a club before the end of the competition, because the failure of one of the competitors shakes the final ranking and hence the equity of the competition. The control set up by these federations therefore focuses on the ability of clubs to finance their budget, regardless of what their funding means are. So clubs must justify that their budget is balanced, and if not must present some kind of funding guarantee. If a stakeholder undertakes to cover the...
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